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The popularity of the birth control pill brought the world into the sexual revolution. The easy access to birth control encouraged sex, and eventually brought us into the women's movement in the 1970's. Women's freedom over their sexuality allows freedom of their finances. However the true beginning of the women's movement began as early as the 1920's. The possibility of contraceptives would not have been possible in the 1960's without the original women's movement in the 1920's. The purpose of this essay to describe how birth control has affected society, and the impact it had on the AIDS virus. It is commonly known that many years ago, before World War I, society had the misconception that women's primary and only function was to reproduce. Maybe this belief started with Eve. Preparation for motherhood and marriage began shortly after the girl's birth. Throughout the girls life, cleaning house and caring for children were the only skills that were taught to her. Women had no option to develop their individuality. Their status was identified with their husband'?s status. The female role was a housewife and a mother. There was no logical reason to educate women, because their education would not serve any purpose. Women usually did not even graduate from high school. Pregnancy and marriage was very common at fourteen years of age. If women did work outside of their homes, it was usually domestic, such as a housecleaning or babysitting, but no woman had any position that had any status to it. The concept of birth control is not new. According to the article, The History of Contraception and Birth Control, women have been trying many ways to prevent pregnancy. Many of the beliefs to prevent pregnancy were folklore and/or superstitious. One of the popular ways of preventing pregnancy was throwing an ear of corn into the river. If a woman threw an ear of corn into a river, she thought she was protected from pregnancy for the entire month. Before World War 1 took place, women who attempted to prevent pregnancy was frowned upon. Although women's choice not to have children is more acceptable today, she is expected to want to have children. Women who are perfectly able but protest they never want to have children, are considered selfish and not making their contribution in society. In the 1920's, when World War I took place, women had to fend for themselves. Women had to find a way to survive without their husbands. The woman was responsible for providing a living for herself and her children. In the 1920's, more women entered white-collar professions. This was the beginning of the feminist movement and the change in status and roles for women. Birth control was becoming more acceptable. The pill would not exist without the energy and money invested by early twentieth century feminists activists such as in the U.S. Margaret Sanger and rich women philanthropists like Katherine McCormick (Mark, 2000). Society's prosperity and advancement depends on a growing population. If every woman decided she did not want to have children, the world would come to an abrupt end in a few short years. Even today, women are depended upon to bring the next generation to us. However since the 1960's, as birth control was improving, the image of a woman as a housewife and mother was changing. At this time women were still expected to get married and have children, and most every woman did, but average age was 17-22. A significant difference from fourteen years of age. As the medical research profession advanced and improved birth control methods, the sexual revolution evolved. Between the 1960's and the 1970's choices of lifestyles were accepted in society. (Author Unknown, 2002) The article, The History of Birth Control, stated 'When the pill was introduced in the 1960's, some people saw this as a reason for immortality. The popularity of the birth control in the 1960's brought the sexual revolution. Women who grew up during the sexual revolution had more sexual freedom than the women before this time. Sex outside of marriage, or with no intention on getting married, was becoming increasingly common. Society's focus changed form productionism to consumerism. (N.A. 2002) The sexual revolution leads the world into a new movement that would permanently change the identity of women. The 1970's brought the era of the feminist movement. In Rebecca Walkowitz's book review of Paula Kamen's Her Way she quotes that the basic source of women's control over their sex lives is their financial independence. During the sixties, the birth control pill allowed women to have sexual intercourse decreasing the chances of pregnancy. As discussed before, many years ago women as young as fourteen years of age were marrying because of pregnancy. The chances of sexual intercourse without reliable birth control increased the possibility of pregnancy. Birth control became more easily accessible in the 1960's. Women associated this sexual freedom of participating in sexual intercourse without the requirement of a marriage commitment. Given the choice of sexual intercourse without the necessity of marriage encouraged women to stay single longer. Women were encouraged to develop their own individuality when the option of staying single and not getting pregnant was available to them.. More and more women entered into the workplace. Kamen states in her book, Her Way the desire for sexual openness and autonomy is often associated with women of privilege and women who identify as feminists.?? In the 1970's more women found themselves staying single longer, either by choice or circumstance. Women were taking advantage of the option to achieve their own independent status in the workplace. Many women chose the option not to have children, but instead to devote their time and energy to a full-time career. Kamen argues that the new assertiveness is indebted to the political activism of feminists, who helped both to create the economic conditions that give women more options today and to make information about sex and sexuality more accessible (Walkowitz, 2001). The popularity of the birth control pill, and the feminist movement has made a major impact on the difference of the roles and lifestyles of women. Today there are many women choosing to stay dedicated to their careers, and decide that motherhood is not for them. Society is more accepting to women who choose not to have children. According to a government web site fact sheet The History of Birth Control condoms were introduced in the early 18th century. Condoms were invented to protect men from sexually transmitted diseases, not prevent pregnancy. Today condoms are used to prevent pregnancy and STD. According to a government public announcement fact sheet, Sexuality Information and Education Council of the United States condoms are 98 % effective in preventing pregnancy and 99.9 % effective in reducing the chances of STD of HIV infections, if the condoms are used consistently and correctly. A study was published in The New England Journal of Medicine that tested HIV transmission with the use of condoms. The study included 124 couples of one partner HIV positive and the other partner HIV negative. The findings were; no change between couples who used condoms consistently and correctly; 10 % of the HIV-negative partners contracted the HIV virus when the use of condoms were inconsistent; 15 % of the negative partners contracted the virus when they did not use condoms at all. Another study published in The Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes showed that 3 out 171 couples who used condoms contracted the HIV virus; 8 out of 55 who used condoms inconsistently became infected; 8 out of 79 couples who never used condoms became infected. According to the United States HIV & AIDS Statistics Summary, in June of 1981 the first case of AIDS was reported. In the 1980's, the spread of AIDS and deaths of people rose rapidly. Between 1993-1996, AIDS cases and deaths reached an all time high. From 1996 to the present, reported AIDS cases declined rapidly. Today, people with AIDS are living longer and more productive lives during the term of their illness. From July 2000-2001, 22,011 new aids cases were reported. Last year, June 2001, the CDC reported 455, 750 AIDS cases. This is a dramatic drop in statistics from 1999, which reported 800,000-900,000 cases. The HIV and AIDS Statistics Summary reported that 79% of people living with the AIDS virus are men, 21% were women, and less than 1 % were children under the age of 13. Cultural statistics are; 41 % White, 38 % Blacks, 20 % Hispanics and Asians and Pacific Islanders were hardly infected at all. This article implies that the greatest people who are at high risk are people under the age of 25, because their behavior is more carefree. The government website reports the majority of AIDS infected statistics are white, and that AIDS infections are due to careless behavior. On the other hand, it is common knowledge that America is one of the only countries that is conservative about their sexuality. In other countries, women walk around topless on beaches, breastfeed their infants in public places and men have multiple sex partners. This is perfectly acceptable behavior in the tropical countries. Yet, the report shows that tropical citizens are hardly affected at all by the HIV virus. In my opinion, the website is contradictory to reality. The website is using statistics to promote values. The popularity of birth control made significant changes in the lifestyles of society. Before the 1920's, women's only function was to reproduce. At this time, women's only training was preparation to be a housewife and mother. When World War 1 evolved, the only men around were very young men or very old men. Women had to work outside of the home. At the end of the war, society expected women to go back to being proficient at their domestic duties. However the status and roles of women progressed and were not going to turn back. The 1960?'s brought the birth control pill. Women's chances of conceiving were greatly reduced. This allowed women to engage in sexual intercourse without any concern of committing to marriage. Women became independent, which brought the feminist movement. Today, women have more options than ever. The introduction of birth control allowed financial independence for women.
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How Birth Control Affects Society in the United States
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How Birth Control Affects Society In The United States

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              The popularity of the birth control pill brought the world into the sexual revolution. The easy access to birth control encouraged sex, and eventually brought us into the women's movement in the 1970's. Women's freedom over their sexuality allows freedom of their finances. However the true beginning of the women's movement began as early as the 1920's. The possibility of contraceptives would not have been possible in the 1960's without the original women's movement in the 1920's. The purpose of this essay to describe how birth control has affected society, and the impact it had on the AIDS virus.
             
              It is commonly known that many years ago, before World War I, society had the misconception that women's primary and only function was to reproduce. Maybe this belief started with Eve. Preparation for motherhood and marriage began shortly after the girl's birth. Throughout the girls life, cleaning house and caring for children were the only skills that were taught to her. Women had no option to develop their individuality. Their status was identified with their husband'? s status. The female role was a housewife and a mother.
             
              There was no logical reason to educate women, because their education would not serve any purpose. Women usually did not even graduate from high school. Pregnancy and marriage was very common at fourteen years of age. If women did work outside of their homes, it was usually domestic, such as a housecleaning or babysitting, but no woman had any position that had any status to it.
             
              The concept of birth control is not new. According to the article, The History of Contraception and Birth Control, women have been trying many ways to prevent pregnancy. Many of the beliefs to prevent pregnancy were folklore and/or superstitious. One of the popular ways of preventing pregnancy was throwing an ear of corn into the river. If a woman threw an ear of corn into a river, she thought she was protected from pregnancy for the entire month. Before World War 1 took place, women who attempted to prevent pregnancy was frowned upon. Although women's choice not to have children is more acceptable today, she is expected to want to have children. Women who are perfectly able but protest they never want to have children, are considered selfish and not making their contribution in society.
             
              In the 1920's, when World War I took place, women had to fend for themselves. Women had to find a way to survive without their husbands. The woman was responsible for providing a living for herself and her children. In the 1920's, more women entered white-collar professions. This was the beginning of the feminist movement and the change in status and roles for women. Birth control was becoming more acceptable. The pill would not exist without the energy and money invested by early twentieth century feminists activists such as in the U. S. Margaret Sanger and rich women philanthropists like Katherine McCormick (Mark, 2000).
             
              Society's prosperity and advancement depends on a growing population. If every woman decided she did not want to have children, the world would come to an abrupt end in a few short years. Even today, women are depended upon to bring the next generation to us. However since the 1960's, as birth control was improving, the image of a woman as a housewife and mother was changing. At this time women were still expected to get married and have children, and most every woman did, but average age was 17-22. A significant difference from fourteen years of age. As the medical research profession advanced and improved birth control methods, the sexual revolution evolved. Between the 1960's and the 1970's choices of lifestyles were accepted in society. (Author Unknown, 2002)
             
              The article, The History of Birth Control, stated 'When the pill was introduced in the 1960's, some people saw this as a reason for immortality. The popularity of the birth control in the 1960's brought the sexual revolution. Women who grew up during the sexual revolution had more sexual freedom than the women before this time. Sex outside of marriage, or with no intention on getting married, was becoming increasingly common. Society's focus changed form productionism to consumerism. (N. A. 2002) The sexual revolution leads the world into a new movement that would permanently change the identity of women.
             
              The 1970's brought the era of the feminist movement. In Rebecca Walkowitz's book review of Paula Kamen's Her Way she quotes that the basic source of women's control over their sex lives is their financial independence. During the sixties, the birth control pill allowed women to have sexual intercourse decreasing the chances of pregnancy. As discussed before, many years ago women as young as fourteen years of age were marrying because of pregnancy. The chances of sexual intercourse without reliable birth control increased the possibility of pregnancy. Birth control became more easily accessible in the 1960's. Women associated this sexual freedom of participating in sexual intercourse without the requirement of a marriage commitment. Given the choice of sexual intercourse without the necessity of marriage encouraged women to stay single longer. Women were encouraged to develop their own individuality when the option of staying single and not getting pregnant was available to them. . More and more women entered into the workplace.
             
              Kamen states in her book, Her Way the desire for sexual openness and autonomy is often associated with women of privilege and women who identify as feminists. ? ? In the 1970's more women found themselves staying single longer, either by choice or circumstance. Women were taking advantage of the option to achieve their own independent status in the workplace. Many women chose the option not to have children, but instead to devote their time and energy to a full-time career. Kamen argues that the new assertiveness is indebted to the political activism of feminists, who helped both to create the economic conditions that give women more options today and to make information about sex and sexuality more accessible (Walkowitz, 2001).
             
              The popularity of the birth control pill, and the feminist movement has made a major impact on the difference of the roles and lifestyles of women. Today there are many women choosing to stay dedicated to their careers, and decide that motherhood is not for them. Society is more accepting to women who choose not to have children.
             
              According to a government web site fact sheet The History of Birth Control condoms were introduced in the early 18th century. Condoms were invented to protect men from sexually transmitted diseases, not prevent pregnancy. Today condoms are used to prevent pregnancy and STD. According to a government public announcement fact sheet, Sexuality Information and Education Council of the United States condoms are 98 % effective in preventing pregnancy and 99. 9 % effective in reducing the chances of STD of HIV infections, if the condoms are used consistently and correctly.
             
              A study was published in The New England Journal of Medicine that tested HIV transmission with the use of condoms. The study included 124 couples of one partner HIV positive and the other partner HIV negative. The findings were; no change between couples who used condoms consistently and correctly; 10 % of the HIV-negative partners contracted the HIV virus when the use of condoms were inconsistent; 15 % of the negative partners contracted the virus when they did not use condoms at all. Another study published in The Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes showed that 3 out 171 couples who used condoms contracted the HIV virus; 8 out of 55 who used condoms inconsistently became infected; 8 out of 79 couples who never used condoms became infected.
             
              According to the United States HIV & AIDS Statistics Summary, in June of 1981 the first case of AIDS was reported. In the 1980's, the spread of AIDS and deaths of people rose rapidly. Between 1993-1996, AIDS cases and deaths reached an all time high. From 1996 to the present, reported AIDS cases declined rapidly. Today, people with AIDS are living longer and more productive lives during the term of their illness. From July 2000-2001, 22,011 new aids cases were reported. Last year, June 2001, the CDC reported 455, 750 AIDS cases. This is a dramatic drop in statistics from 1999, which reported 800,000-900,000 cases.
             
              The HIV and AIDS Statistics Summary reported that 79% of people living with the AIDS virus are men, 21% were women, and less than 1 % were children under the age of 13. Cultural statistics are; 41 % White, 38 % Blacks, 20 % Hispanics and Asians and Pacific Islanders were hardly infected at all. This article implies that the greatest people who are at high risk are people under the age of 25, because their behavior is more carefree.
             
              The government website reports the majority of AIDS infected statistics are white, and that AIDS infections are due to careless behavior. On the other hand, it is common knowledge that America is one of the only countries that is conservative about their sexuality. In other countries, women walk around topless on beaches, breastfeed their infants in public places and men have multiple sex partners. This is perfectly acceptable behavior in the tropical countries. Yet, the report shows that tropical citizens are hardly affected at all by the HIV virus. In my opinion, the website is contradictory to reality. The website is using statistics to promote values.
             
              The popularity of birth control made significant changes in the lifestyles of society. Before the 1920's, women's only function was to reproduce. At this time, women's only training was preparation to be a housewife and mother. When World War 1 evolved, the only men around were very young men or very old men. Women had to work outside of the home. At the end of the war, society expected women to go back to being proficient at their domestic duties. However the status and roles of women progressed and were not going to turn back.
             
              The 1960? 's brought the birth control pill. Women's chances of conceiving were greatly reduced. This allowed women to engage in sexual intercourse without any concern of committing to marriage. Women became independent, which brought the feminist movement. Today, women have more options than ever. The introduction of birth control allowed financial independence for women.
Birth Control Essay 
-1
No Author Given, (2002)

History of Birth Control

www.chstm.man.ac.uk/teaching/2001-2002/hs2201/lect-2201-3

No Author Given, (1997)

Sexuality Information and Education Council of the United States

Government Public Information; Fact Sheet

www.siecus.org/pubs/fact/fact0011.html

Hills-Jones, Ben (updated July 17, 2002)

United States HIV and AIDS Statistics Summary

www.avert.org/statsum.htm

Kaus, Andrea (updated 2002, copywriter 1997-2002)

A Matter of Life and Death; Changing Attitudes About AIDS

Ucmexus.ucr.edu/ucmnews/attitudes_AIDS.htm

House, Wayne, (No date given)

Should Christians Use Birth Control

www.equip.org/free/de194.htm

Marks, Lara (2000)

Parenting the Pill; Early Testing of the Contraceptive Pill

Bodies of Technology; Women??s Involvement with Reproductive Technology pp 146-147

Morgan, Timothy, (2000)

Sexual Revolution Speeds Spread of HIV Among Africans

Christianity Today, Volume 44, Issue 2 p 38

Walkowitz, Rebecca (6/2001)

One-Way Street?

Book Review of Her Way?? written by Paula Kamen

Women's Review of Books, Vol. 18, Issue 9 page 20-23
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