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Depression is an equal opportunity disorder, it can affect any group of people with any background, race, gender, or age. Depression is a sneak thief that slips quietly and gradually into people's lives - robbing them of their time, and their focus. At first, depression may be undetectable, but in the long run a person could become so weighed down that their life may feel empty and meaningless. Contrary to popular belief, not everyone who commits suicide is depressed, but majority of people who commits suicide do so during a severe depressive episode. There are over 300 million people in the world today who suffer from depression. Depression has affected people for a long as records have been kept. It was first called out by the famous Greek philosopher Hippocrates over 2,400 years ago. Hippocrates called it "melancholia". Many times we think of depression as one disorder alone, when in fact there are many different types of depression. The different types of depression are major depressive disorder, dysthymic disorder, atypical disorder, adjustment disorder, and depressive personality disorder. All types of depression share at least one common symptom. It is commons from the person who suffers from any form of depression to feel an unshakable sadness, anxious, or empty mood. Major depressive disorder also known as unipolar depression or recurrent depressive disorder is the most severe depressive disorder out of all of the depressive in my estimation. Major depressive disorder is a condition in which affects a person's family, work or school life, sleeping, eating and general health. It is important to emphasize that we can understand the mechanics of this disorder and how it affects people with major depressive disorder. Etiology By understanding who gets a particular illness it is possible to better develop methods to control, treat, and prevent a particular condition. However depression is so widely experienced by so many people it is important to establish the patterns that might further help manage this disorder. It is clear that depression impacts many people personality and professionally, it dramatically reduces the quality and quantity if creative and productive work and often ruining people's careers. At this time in depression research a main cause has not yet to be determined. However, when addressing the potential causal factors in major depression one can begin with three factors: psychological, environmental, biological factors. Out of all the psychological approaches to understanding depression psychoanalysis if the most long-standing. It was originally developed by Sigmund Freud. This approaches typically looks for the source of a person's difficulties in their subconscious, and problems in the realm of psychic functioning can lead to depression. Freud believed that depression simply meant that the person had internalized either anger or loss or both. This is the implication a person who is suffering from depression doesn't know or understand the real nature of their conditions and can not relive it without proper treatment. Psychological factors that have been linked to depression include such things as: a history of depression, low self-esteem, unresolved issues from childhood, and difficulty coping with stress and change. The environmental factors that are related to depression include: Loneliness, lack of a good support system, and a decrease in mobility or independence. Life circumstances if nothing else can aggravate a depressive disorder in significant ways. We know that there are people who are subject to depression or who suffered abuse or trauma during childhood. However, stress can make people more threatened to depression or depressive symptoms. The body produces a hormones under stress that changes the bodily emotional functioning of the neural transmitting of the brain. Stress also can impact the immune system, as well as causing problems in the mental processes. As for the biological theory there are a large number of different approached to trying to discover the biological basis for depression. The biological factors that are related to depression include: genetics, vas changes in the brain, and drugs abuse and chronic or severe pain. There is no doubt that genetics play a part in biological realm of depression. In addition to genetics, some researchers agree that in some medical conditions there is a biological connection between illness and depression, other that the person is depressed because they are ill. For example, in 1998 my mother injured herself on her job when she picked up a large vacuum cleaner. In 1998 she was in a lot of pain and the doctors prescribed her pain medication. So she took the medication until her surgery and it made her sleep majority of the day, and then my family started to notice a change in my mother. My mother was not her happy full of life self, now she was tired, uncaring and lethargic. She would take more and more of her medication to just make her sleep. In her eyes her pain was only remedy by the medication and she was diagnosed with major depression in 1999. Even though she depression began with she unremitting back pain I believe the prescription drug played a role in her depression because all kinds of drugs can lead to depressive symptoms from prescription to street drugs. A person with depression could possibly try to self medicate with drugs or alcohol. When talking about depression relative to the different approaches and theories we must keep in mind that even with the same disorder no two clients are exactly the same. As a professional can certainly learn and apply ideas from one person to another, but each person is always unique. It is important to use models and theories to help guide thinking to narrow things down, but one should avoid "cookie cutter" approaches that tried to fit people in one specific category. One should not assume that the same approach works the same on each client every time. Characteristics Because the symptoms of major depression are so intrusive and unpleasant it may seem odd that the diagnosis of major depression is commonly missed or misdiagnosed and it often goes untreated for long periods of time. One problem is that many people don't seek help because they believe that nothing or no one can help them or they are so tired and discouraged they do not have the strength or enthusiasm to even make an appointment from help. Major depressive disorder or major depression is characterized by the presence of one or more depressive episodes throughout the person's natural life. Normally a depressive event last anywhere from months to years, after which most people are generally restored to their regular state of health. Some people maybe experiencing depression symptoms that are so severe that they are impossible to ignore and the person obviously knows something is not right. Other times there are some people who do not really know why they are feeling unhappy because they feel that way most of the time so it seems normal. The two fundamental symptoms that are the core characteristics of depression are a depressed mood and lack of interest or lack of enjoyment of things that they once found enjoyable. Clearly, depression is much more than feeling sad, or just having a down moment. To qualify for the diagnosis a person must have experienced major symptoms most of the time on a daily basis for at least two weeks. Depression affects how the sufferer feels, think, behave, and how their bodies work. As untreated depression prolongs it becomes worse, in which the brain is unable to function normally. Problems arise such as short term memory, slowed thinking and concentration difficulties. Most people suffering from moderate to sever depression will have decreased levels of activity and will appear withdrawn and some show hyperactive or restless behavior. Other symptoms can be expressed in negative feelings about themselves or anyone else and a overall pessimistic view on life. Most clients say that they want to die, and cant find a compelling reason to live. They often believe that they do not deserve to feel good about themselves and feel that the depressed feeling is punishment for being worthless. In addition, depressed people tend to have problems sleeping, either they have insomnia (problems falling a sleep or staying asleep) or hypersomnia (excessive sleeping). Other common influences of major depression consist of, changes Appetite, unexplained physical complaints, reduced sex drive, and being easily frustrated. Assessments Psychologists consider three types of data when developing treatment approaches: thoughts, feelings and behaviors. To find out the information to make a correct and complete diagnosis can be determined by interviewing the client using unstructured, semi structured, or fully structured clinical interviews. Diagnosis can not be determined by one's own opinion alone. There are screening tools for watching changed in cognition, affect or mood. These assessments are important in this disorder because major depression normally cannot be diagnosed if a person has a history of manic, hypo manic, or mixed episodes. Taking the clinical assessments and interviews, and being alert to the clients symptoms the professional can diagnosis the client properly. Treatment and Management: There is really no "one" thing to treat depression. Depression is not like having a cold or the flu so it should not be surprising to know that there are a variety of approaches and treatments to deal with depression. Some researchers argue that depression can be treated with medication alone, however then it would be considered a biological illness if medication could fully regulate the sufferer. Clearly, this is faulty thinking. Most practitioners today are comfortable with the thinking that there are different types of treatment available. If one treatment doesn't work try another, but make sure the client stays in treatment until the treatment shows some results. There are literally hundreds of different approaches to psychotherapy for depression, but the mostly fall in the groups: psychodynamic, humanistic/existential, cognitive, behavioral, and group therapy. Each of them are unique and understand how to treat depression. One approach that has been influential is antidepressants medication. In recent years these drugs have had a major impact on the treatment of depression and anxiety disorders. Prozac in created stir in 1987 . What made this drug different than the early antidepressants was the fact that it worked as a reuptake inhibitor only for serotonin. (SSRI) Prozac and other drugs where quickly marketed and sold and probably overused. SSRIs that are used today in the United States are Celexa, Lexapro, Luvox, Paxil, Prozac, and Zoloft. Summary: In order to fully understand depression, one has to examine the biological, psychological and social issues of the person facing this disorder. Although this is a complex disorder it can be managed. One can live again without the feelings of worthlessness, and emotional pain. Depression affects your motivation to do things, emotions towards others, way of thinking, clouds images, and changes behaviors. After all the reading that I have done and learning of this disorder my view is that depression is not just a mind thing. Some people would have you believe that you can snap out of depression with a few self-help tactics. When one feels that they may share these symptoms they should get help immediately, this is a serious disorder do not suffer in silence.
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Depression: Symptoms, Types, and Treatments
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Depression: Symptoms, Types, And Treatments

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              Depression is an equal opportunity disorder, it can affect any group of people with any background, race, gender, or age. Depression is a sneak thief that slips quietly and gradually into people's lives - robbing them of their time, and their focus. At first, depression may be undetectable, but in the long run a person could become so weighed down that their life may feel empty and meaningless. Contrary to popular belief, not everyone who commits suicide is depressed, but majority of people who commits suicide do so during a severe depressive episode. There are over 300 million people in the world today who suffer from depression. Depression has affected people for a long as records have been kept. It was first called out by the famous Greek philosopher Hippocrates over 2,400 years ago. Hippocrates called it "melancholia". Many times we think of depression as one disorder alone, when in fact there are many different types of depression. The different types of depression are major depressive disorder, dysthymic disorder, atypical disorder, adjustment disorder, and depressive personality disorder. All types of depression share at least one common symptom. It is commons from the person who suffers from any form of depression to feel an unshakable sadness, anxious, or empty mood. Major depressive disorder also known as unipolar depression or recurrent depressive disorder is the most severe depressive disorder out of all of the depressive in my estimation. Major depressive disorder is a condition in which affects a person's family, work or school life, sleeping, eating and general health. It is important to emphasize that we can understand the mechanics of this disorder and how it affects people with major depressive disorder.
              Etiology
              By understanding who gets a particular illness it is possible to better develop methods to control, treat, and prevent a particular condition. However depression is so widely experienced by so many people it is important to establish the patterns that might further help manage this disorder. It is clear that depression impacts many people personality and professionally, it dramatically reduces the quality and quantity if creative and productive work and often ruining people's careers. At this time in depression research a main cause has not yet to be determined. However, when addressing the potential causal factors in major depression one can begin with three factors: psychological, environmental, biological factors.
              Out of all the psychological approaches to understanding depression psychoanalysis if the most long-standing. It was originally developed by Sigmund Freud. This approaches typically looks for the source of a person's difficulties in their subconscious, and problems in the realm of psychic functioning can lead to depression. Freud believed that depression simply meant that the person had internalized either anger or loss or both. This is the implication a person who is suffering from depression doesn't know or understand the real nature of their conditions and can not relive it without proper treatment. Psychological factors that have been linked to depression include such things as: a history of depression, low self-esteem, unresolved issues from childhood, and difficulty coping with stress and change.
              The environmental factors that are related to depression include: Loneliness, lack of a good support system, and a decrease in mobility or independence. Life circumstances if nothing else can aggravate a depressive disorder in significant ways. We know that there are people who are subject to depression or who suffered abuse or trauma during childhood. However, stress can make people more threatened to depression or depressive symptoms. The body produces a hormones under stress that changes the bodily emotional functioning of the neural transmitting of the brain. Stress also can impact the immune system, as well as causing problems in the mental processes.
              As for the biological theory there are a large number of different approached to trying to discover the biological basis for depression. The biological factors that are related to depression include: genetics, vas changes in the brain, and drugs abuse and chronic or severe pain. There is no doubt that genetics play a part in biological realm of depression. In addition to genetics, some researchers agree that in some medical conditions there is a biological connection between illness and depression, other that the person is depressed because they are ill. For example, in 1998 my mother injured herself on her job when she picked up a large vacuum cleaner. In 1998 she was in a lot of pain and the doctors prescribed her pain medication. So she took the medication until her surgery and it made her sleep majority of the day, and then my family started to notice a change in my mother. My mother was not her happy full of life self, now she was tired, uncaring and lethargic. She would take more and more of her medication to just make her sleep. In her eyes her pain was only remedy by the medication and she was diagnosed with major depression in 1999. Even though she depression began with she unremitting back pain I believe the prescription drug played a role in her depression because all kinds of drugs can lead to depressive symptoms from prescription to street drugs. A person with depression could possibly try to self medicate with drugs or alcohol.
              When talking about depression relative to the different approaches and theories we must keep in mind that even with the same disorder no two clients are exactly the same. As a professional can certainly learn and apply ideas from one person to another, but each person is always unique. It is important to use models and theories to help guide thinking to narrow things down, but one should avoid "cookie cutter" approaches that tried to fit people in one specific category. One should not assume that the same approach works the same on each client every time.
              Characteristics
              Because the symptoms of major depression are so intrusive and unpleasant it may seem odd that the diagnosis of major depression is commonly missed or misdiagnosed and it often goes untreated for long periods of time. One problem is that many people don't seek help because they believe that nothing or no one can help them or they are so tired and discouraged they do not have the strength or enthusiasm to even make an appointment from help. Major depressive disorder or major depression is characterized by the presence of one or more depressive episodes throughout the person's natural life. Normally a depressive event last anywhere from months to years, after which most people are generally restored to their regular state of health. Some people maybe experiencing depression symptoms that are so severe that they are impossible to ignore and the person obviously knows something is not right. Other times there are some people who do not really know why they are feeling unhappy because they feel that way most of the time so it seems normal. The two fundamental symptoms that are the core characteristics of depression are a depressed mood and lack of interest or lack of enjoyment of things that they once found enjoyable.
              Clearly, depression is much more than feeling sad, or just having a down moment. To qualify for the diagnosis a person must have experienced major symptoms most of the time on a daily basis for at least two weeks.
              Depression affects how the sufferer feels, think, behave, and how their bodies work. As untreated depression prolongs it becomes worse, in which the brain is unable to function normally. Problems arise such as short term memory, slowed thinking and concentration difficulties. Most people suffering from moderate to sever depression will have decreased levels of activity and will appear withdrawn and some show hyperactive or restless behavior. Other symptoms can be expressed in negative feelings about themselves or anyone else and a overall pessimistic view on life. Most clients say that they want to die, and cant find a compelling reason to live. They often believe that they do not deserve to feel good about themselves and feel that the depressed feeling is punishment for being worthless.
              In addition, depressed people tend to have problems sleeping, either they have insomnia (problems falling a sleep or staying asleep) or hypersomnia (excessive sleeping). Other common influences of major depression consist of, changes Appetite, unexplained physical complaints, reduced sex drive, and being easily frustrated.
             
              Assessments
              Psychologists consider three types of data when developing treatment approaches: thoughts, feelings and behaviors. To find out the information to make a correct and complete diagnosis can be determined by interviewing the client using unstructured, semi structured, or fully structured clinical interviews. Diagnosis can not be determined by one's own opinion alone. There are screening tools for watching changed in cognition, affect or mood. These assessments are important in this disorder because major depression normally cannot be diagnosed if a person has a history of manic, hypo manic, or mixed episodes. Taking the clinical assessments and interviews, and being alert to the clients symptoms the professional can diagnosis the client properly.
             
              Treatment and Management:
              There is really no "one" thing to treat depression. Depression is not like having a cold or the flu so it should not be surprising to know that there are a variety of approaches and treatments to deal with depression. Some researchers argue that depression can be treated with medication alone, however then it would be considered a biological illness if medication could fully regulate the sufferer. Clearly, this is faulty thinking. Most practitioners today are comfortable with the thinking that there are different types of treatment available. If one treatment doesn't work try another, but make sure the client stays in treatment until the treatment shows some results.
              There are literally hundreds of different approaches to psychotherapy for depression, but the mostly fall in the groups: psychodynamic, humanistic/existential, cognitive, behavioral, and group therapy. Each of them are unique and understand how to treat depression.
              One approach that has been influential is antidepressants medication. In recent years these drugs have had a major impact on the treatment of depression and anxiety disorders. Prozac in created stir in 1987 . What made this drug different than the early antidepressants was the fact that it worked as a reuptake inhibitor only for serotonin. (SSRI) Prozac and other drugs where quickly marketed and sold and probably overused. SSRIs that are used today in the United States are Celexa, Lexapro, Luvox, Paxil, Prozac, and Zoloft.
             
              Summary:
              In order to fully understand depression, one has to examine the biological, psychological and social issues of the person facing this disorder. Although this is a complex disorder it can be managed. One can live again without the feelings of worthlessness, and emotional pain. Depression affects your motivation to do things, emotions towards others, way of thinking, clouds images, and changes behaviors. After all the reading that I have done and learning of this disorder my view is that depression is not just a mind thing. Some people would have you believe that you can snap out of depression with a few self-help tactics. When one feels that they may share these symptoms they should get help immediately, this is a serious disorder do not suffer in silence.
Depression Essay 
Ainsworth, Patricia. (2000). Understanding depression . Jackson: University press of mississippi.

Andrews, Linda . (2010). Encyclopedia of depression . Santa Barbara: Greenwood press.

Bert, Paul. (2007). Psychotherapy and counseling for depression . Los Angeles : Sage.

Pettit , Jeremy . (2006). Chronic depression : interpersonal sources, therapeutic solutions. Washington: American psychological association.

Swartz, Karen . (2004). Depression and anxiety . Baltimore: Johns hopkins medicine .

Horwitz, Allan. (2010). How an Age of Anxiety Became an Age of Depression. , 88(1), p112-138.

Mcbride, Carolina. Zuroff, David. Ravitz, Paula. Koestner, Richard. Moskowitz, Debbie. Quilty, Lena. Bagby, Michael. (2010). British Journal of Clinical Psychology. , 49(4), p529-545.

O'Grady, M. (2010). Depression History, Depression Vulnerability, and the Experience of Everyday Negative Events. Journal Of Social & Clinical Psychology, 29(9), 949-974.


Vaccarino, A. H. (2008). Symptoms of anxiety in depression: assessment of item performance of the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale in patients with depression. Depression & Anxiety (1091-4269), 25(12), 1006-1013.


Taubner, Svenja. Kessler, Henrik. Buchheim, Anna. Kachele, Horst. Staun, Lenka. (2011). The Role of Mentalization in the Psychoanalytic Treatment of Chronic Depression. , 74(1), p49-57.
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